# Problem: Caesar

Questions? Feel free to head to CS50 on Reddit, CS50 on StackExchange, or the CS50 Facebook group.

## tl;dr

Implement a program that encrypts messages using Caesar’s cipher, per the below.

$./caesar 13 plaintext: HELLO ciphertext: URYYB • Pages 11 – 14 and 39 of http://www.howstuffworks.com/c.htm. • Chapters 6, 7, 10, 17, 19, 21, 22, 30, and 32 of Absolute Beginner’s Guide to C. • Chapters 7, 8, and 10 of Programming in C. ## Academic Honesty This course’s philosophy on academic honesty is best stated as "be reasonable." The course recognizes that interactions with classmates and others can facilitate mastery of the course’s material. However, there remains a line between enlisting the help of another and submitting the work of another. This policy characterizes both sides of that line. The essence of all work that you submit to this course must be your own. Collaboration on problems is not permitted (unless explicitly stated otherwise) except to the extent that you may ask classmates and others for help so long as that help does not reduce to another doing your work for you. Generally speaking, when asking for help, you may show your code or writing to others, but you may not view theirs, so long as you and they respect this policy’s other constraints. Collaboration on quizzes and tests is not permitted at all. Collaboration on the final project is permitted to the extent prescribed by its specification. Below are rules of thumb that (inexhaustively) characterize acts that the course considers reasonable and not reasonable. If in doubt as to whether some act is reasonable, do not commit it until you solicit and receive approval in writing from your instructor. If a violation of this policy is suspected and confirmed, your instructor reserves the right to impose local sanctions on top of any disciplinary outcome that may include an unsatisfactory or failing grade for work submitted or for the course itself. ### Reasonable • Communicating with classmates about problems in English (or some other spoken language). • Discussing the course’s material with others in order to understand it better. • Helping a classmate identify a bug in his or her code, such as by viewing, compiling, or running his or her code, even on your own computer. • Incorporating snippets of code that you find online or elsewhere into your own code, provided that those snippets are not themselves solutions to assigned problems and that you cite the snippets' origins. • Reviewing past years' quizzes, tests, and solutions thereto. • Sending or showing code that you’ve written to someone, possibly a classmate, so that he or she might help you identify and fix a bug. • Sharing snippets of your own solutions to problems online so that others might help you identify and fix a bug or other issue. • Turning to the web or elsewhere for instruction beyond the course’s own, for references, and for solutions to technical difficulties, but not for outright solutions to problems or your own final project. • Whiteboarding solutions to problems with others using diagrams or pseudocode but not actual code. • Working with (and even paying) a tutor to help you with the course, provided the tutor does not do your work for you. ### Not Reasonable • Accessing a solution to some problem prior to (re-)submitting your own. • Asking a classmate to see his or her solution to a problem before (re-)submitting your own. • Decompiling, deobfuscating, or disassembling the staff’s solutions to problems. • Failing to cite (as with comments) the origins of code, writing, or techniques that you discover outside of the course’s own lessons and integrate into your own work, even while respecting this policy’s other constraints. • Giving or showing to a classmate a solution to a problem when it is he or she, and not you, who is struggling to solve it. • Looking at another individual’s work during a quiz or test. • Paying or offering to pay an individual for work that you may submit as (part of) your own. • Providing or making available solutions to problems to individuals who might take this course in the future. • Searching for, soliciting, or viewing a quiz’s questions or answers prior to taking the quiz. • Searching for or soliciting outright solutions to problems online or elsewhere. • Splitting a problem’s workload with another individual and combining your work (unless explicitly authorized by the problem itself). • Submitting (after possibly modifying) the work of another individual beyond allowed snippets. • Submitting the same or similar work to this course that you have submitted or will submit to another. • Using resources during a quiz beyond those explicitly allowed in the quiz’s instructions. • Viewing another’s solution to a problem and basing your own solution on it. ## Assessment Your work on this problem set will be evaluated along four axes primarily. Scope To what extent does your code implement the features required by our specification? Correctness To what extent is your code consistent with our specifications and free of bugs? Design To what extent is your code written well (i.e., clearly, efficiently, elegantly, and/or logically)? Style To what extent is your code readable (i.e., commented and indented with variables aptly named)? To obtain a passing grade in this course, all students must ordinarily submit all assigned problems unless granted an exception in writing by the instructor. ## The Early Shift First, have a look at a few shorts; in particular, these three on loops, command-line arguments, and the Caesar cipher. If you happen to see (and are confused by!) char * in these and other shorts, know for now that char * simply means string. But more on that soon! Be sure you’re reasonably comfortable answering the below questions before moving too far! • How does a while loop differ from a do-while loop? When is the latter particularly useful? • Why is Caesar’s cipher not very secure? • What’s a function? • Why bother writing functions when you can just copy and paste code as needed? Log into your CS50 IDE workspace and execute update50 within a terminal window to make sure your workspace is up-to-date. If you somehow closed your terminal window (and can’t find it!), make sure that Console is checked under the View menu, then click the green, circled plus (+) in CS50 IDE’s bottom half, then select New Terminal. If you need a hand, do just ask via the channels noted at the top of this specification. Now execute cd ~/workspace/chapter2 to move yourself into (i.e., open) that directory. Your prompt should now resemble the below. ~/workspace/chapter2$

Make a new caesar directory inside of chapter2. You’re now ready to go!

## Background

Supposedly, Caesar (yes, that Caesar) used to "encrypt" (i.e., conceal in a reversible way) confidential messages by shifting each letter therein by some number of places. For instance, he might write A as B, B as C, C as D, …​, and, wrapping around alphabetically, Z as A. And so, to say HELLO to someone, Caesar might write IFMMP. Upon receiving such messages from Caesar, recipients would have to "decrypt" them by shifting letters in the opposite direction by the same number of places.

The secrecy of this "cryptosystem" relied on only Caesar and the recipients knowing a secret, the number of places by which Caesar had shifted his letters (e.g., 1). Not particularly secure by modern standards, but, hey, if you’re perhaps the first in the world to do it, pretty secure!

Unencrypted text is generally called plaintext. Encrypted text is generally called ciphertext. And the secret used is called a key.

 plaintext H E L L O + key 1 1 1 1 1 = ciphertext I F M M P

More generally, Caesar’s algorithm (i.e., cipher) encrypts messages by "rotating" each letter by k positions. More formally, if p is some plaintext (i.e., an unencrypted message), pi is the ith character in p, and k is a secret key (i.e., a non-negative integer), then each letter, ci, in the ciphertext, c, is computed as

$c_i = (p_i + k) \bmod 26$

wherein $\bmod 26$ here means "remainder when dividing by 26." This formula perhaps makes the cipher seem more complicated than it is, but it’s really just a concise way of expressing the algorithm precisely.

## Specification

Design and implement a program, caesar, that encrypts messages using Caesar’s cipher.

• Implement your program in a file called caesar.c in a directory called caesar.

• Your program must accept a single command-line argument, a non-negative integer. Let’s call it k for the sake of discussion.

• If your program is executed without any command-line arguments or with more than one command-line argument, your program should print an error message of your choice (with printf) and return from main a value of 1 (which tends to signify an error) immediately.

• You can assume that, if a user does provide a command-line argument, it will be a non-negative integer (e.g., 1). No need to check that it’s indeed numeric.

• Do not assume that k will be less than or equal to 26. Your program should work for all non-negative integral values of k less than 231 - 26. In other words, you don’t need to worry if your program eventually breaks if the user chooses a value for k that’s too big or almost too big to fit in an int. (Recall that an int can overflow.) But, even if k is greater than 26, alphabetical characters in your program’s input should remain alphabetical characters in your program’s output. For instance, if k is 27, A should not become [ even though [ is 27 positions away from A in ASCII, per asciichart.com; A should become B, since B is 27 positions away from A, provided you wrap around from Z to A.

• Your program must output plaintext: (without a newline) and then prompt the user for a string of plaintext (using get_string).

• Your program must output ciphertext: (without a newline) followed by the plaintext’s corresponding ciphertext, with each alphabetical character in the plaintext "rotated" by k positions; non-alphabetical characters should be outputted unchanged.

• Your program must preserve case: capitalized letters, though rotated, must remain capitalized letters; lowercase letters, though rotated, must remain lowercase letters.

• After outputting ciphertext, you should print a newline. Your program should then exit by returning 0 from main.

## Usage

Your program should behave per the examples below. Assumed that the underlined text is what some user has typed.

$./caesar 1 plaintext: HELLO ciphertext: IFMMP$ ./caesar 13
plaintext: hello, world
ciphertext: uryyb, jbeyq
$./caesar 13 plaintext: be sure to drink your Ovaltine ciphertext: or fher gb qevax lbhe Binygvar$ ./caesar
Usage: ./caesar k
\$ ./caesar 1 2 3 4 5
Usage: ./caesar k

## Testing

### check50

check50 cs50/2017/ap/caesar

## Staff Solution

~cs50/chapter2/caesar

## Hints

This program needs to accept a command-line argument, k, so you’ll want to declare main with:

int main(int argc, string argv[])

Recall that argv is an "array" of strings. You can think of an array as row of gym lockers, inside each of which is some value (and maybe some socks). In this case, inside each such locker is a string. To open (i.e., "index into") the first locker, you use syntax like argv[0], since arrays are "zero-indexed." To open the next locker, you use syntax like argv[1]. And so on. Of course, if there are n lockers, you’d better stop opening lockers once you get to argv[n - 1], since argv[n] doesn’t exist! (That or it belongs to someone else, in which case you still shouldn’t open it.)

And so you can access k with code like

string k = argv[1];

assuming it’s actually there! Recall that argc is an int that equals the number of strings that are in argv, so you’d best check the value of argc before opening a locker that might not exist! Ideally, argc will be 2. Why? Well, recall that inside of argv[0], by default, is a program’s own name. So argc will always be at least 1. But for this program you want the user to provide a command-line argument, k, in which case argc should be 2. Of course, if the user provides more than one command-line argument at the prompt, argc could be greater than 2, in which case, again, your program should print an error and return 1.

Now, just because the user types an integer at the prompt, that doesn’t mean their input will be automatically stored in an int. Au contraire, it will be stored as a string that just so happens to look like an int! And so you’ll need to convert that string to an actual int. As luck would have it, a function, atoi, exists for exactly that purposes. Here’s how you might use it:

int k = atoi(argv[1]);

Notice, this time, we’ve declared k as an actual int so that you can actually do some arithmetic with it.

Because atoi is declared in stdlib.h, you’ll want to #include that header file atop your own code. (Technically, your code will compile without it there, since we already #include it in cs50.h. But best not to trust another library to #include header files you know you need.)

Okay, so once you’ve got k stored as an int, you’ll need to ask the user for some plaintext. Odds are CS50’s own get_string can help you with that.

Once you have both k and some plaintext, p, it’s time to encrypt the latter with the former. Recall that you can iterate over the characters in a string, printing each one at a time, with code like the below:

for (int i = 0, n = strlen(p); i < n; i++)
{
printf("%c", p[i]);
}

In other words, just as argv is an array of strings, so is a string an array of chars. And so you can use square brackets to access individual characters in strings just as you can individual strings in argv. Neat, eh? Of course, printing each of the characters in a string one at a time isn’t exactly cryptography. Well, maybe technically if k is 0. But the above should help you help Caesar implement his cipher!

Incidentally, you’ll need to #include yet another header file in order to use strlen.

Besides atoi, you might find some handy functions documented at reference.cs50.net under ctype.h and stdlib.h. For instance, isalpha might prove helpful when iterating over plaintext’s characters.

And, with regard to wrapping around from Z to A (or z to a), don’t forget about %, C’s modulo operator. You might also want to check out http://asciitable.com/, which reveals the ASCII codes for more than just alphabetical characters, just in case you find yourself printing some characters accidentally.

## How to Submit

### Step 1 of 3

Execute update50 again to ensure that your IDE is up-to-date.

### Step 2 of 3

• Recall that you were asked to implement the caesar.

• Be sure that caesar.c is in ~/workspace/chapter2/caesar/, as with:

cd ~/workspace/chapter2/caesar/
ls

### Step 3 of 3

• To submit caesar, execute:

cd ~/workspace/chapter2/caesar/
submit50 cs50/2017/ap/caesar

Your submission should be graded for correctness within 2 minutes, at which point your score will appear at cs50.me!

This was Caesar.